Sejarah Melaka

Melaka

Melaka diketahui sebagai sebuah negeri bersejarah yang kaya dan dikenali sebagai lambang semangat perpaduan kebangsaan yang telah ditempa hasil ukiran dan tenunan sejarah yang unik. Melaka telah diasaskan oleh Parameswara (atau Raja Iskandar), pemerintah Melayu Temasik yang terakhir (Singapura pada masa dahulu) pada tahun 1396 apabila baginda dan pengikut-pengikutnya mengundurkan diri ke selat menuju ke Muar, dan kemudiannya ke Sungai Ujung sebelum singgah di Bertam iaitu berdekatan dengan muara Sungai Melaka.

Setelah mengetahui akan kedudukannya yang strategik, baginda memutuskan untuk menetap di situ dan menamakannya sebagai “Melaka” sempena nama sebuah pokok tempat baginda bersandar. Kesultanan Melaka adalah kedudukan yang istimewa dan penting dalam sejarah Malaysia. Perlantikannya menandakan permulaan baru kepada pemerintahan baru Melayu. Sebagai tempat kelahiran Kesultanan Melayu dan sejarah bandar Malaysia, Melaka merupakan tempat di mana Portugis, Belanda dan juga British memainkan peranan dalam melakar sejarah.

Melaka2

Melaka muncul sebagai sebuah kuasa perdagangan maritim hasil kerja keras Parameswara dan pengikut-pengikutnya. Melaka mula dikenali oleh pedagang-pedagang Islam dari Asia Barat dan India yang pada waktu itu menumpukan aktiviti mereka di Aru, Pedir, Pasai dan sepanjang perjalanan ke Timur, terutamanya Cina. Disebabkan kedudukannya yang strategik di Selat Melaka, ia telah berkembang sebagai pengkalan kapal dan pusat pertukaran barang dagangan dari Cina, Jepun, India, Arab dan Afrika Selatan.

Pada tahun 1511 ia telah jatuh ke tangan Portugis, dan kemudianya Belanda pada tahun 1641 dalam peperangan yang sengit. Pada tahun 1795, Melaka telah diberi kepada British untuk menghalangnya dari jatuh ke tangan Perancis apabila Netherland dijajah semasa Peperangan Napoleon. Selepas itu ia telah dikembalikan semula kepada Belanda pada tahun 1818 di bawah Perjanjian Vienna, tetapi akhirnya menjadi milik British, hasil pertukaran Bangkahulu, Sumatera kepada Belanda. Semenjak tahun 1826, Melaka bersama-sama Singapura dan juga Pulau Pinang diperintah oleh Kompeni Hindia Timur British di bawah pentadbiran Perjanjian Selat di Calcutta. Belanda, sebuah kuasa yang telah memerintah Melaka selama lebih satu kurun telah banyak mendirikan bangunan-bangunan yang melambangkan tinggalan mereka. Stadthuys adalah bekas tinggalan yang terunggul semasa zaman pemerintahan Belanda. Dewan bandar yang berwarna merah jambu ini adalah bangunan tinggalan Belanda yang tertua di Timur Jauh. Bersebelahan dengannya pula adalah Gereja Christ yang berwarna merah terang yang dibina dengan bata merah yang diimport dari Holland yang disalut dengan laserit. Kini, bangunan-bangunan, bersama-sama dengan tinggalan Portugis seperti A’ Famosa dan Gereja St. Paul telah menjadi ingatan yang terunggul melambangkan kehadiran kuasa-kuasa Eropah pada masa lalu di Melaka.

Selepas Perang Dunia ke 2, sentimen anti-koloni telah merebak di seluruh negara di kalangan nasionalis hingga terhasilnya Perisytiharan Kemerdekaan oleh Tunku Abdul Rahman Putra, Perdana Menteri Malaysia yang pertama di Padang Pahlawan di Bandar Hilir Melaka pada 20 Februari 1956.

Melaka History

Melaka is known as a historically rich state and is recognised as one which epitomised the spirit of a nation, forged through the crucible of a tumultuous and intricate history. Melaka was founded by Parameswara (or Raja Iskandar) the last Malay ruler of Temasik (ancient Singapore) in 1396 when he and his followers retreated up the straits to Muar, then tu Sungai Ujung before settling at Bertam near the estuary of Melaka River.

Finding the place is of strategic location, he decided to make a permanent settlement there, naming it “Melaka” after the name of the tree he leaned against. The Melaka Sultanate occupies a special position in the history of Malaysia. Its inauguration marked the beginning of the emergence of a new Malay empire. The birthplace of the Malay Sultanates and Malaysia’s historic city, Melaka provided the stage on which the Portuguese, Dutch and English played out their roles in shaping history.

Melaka emerged as a strong maritime trading state under the industrious Parameswara and his chiefs. Melaka also began to be noticed by Muslim traders from West Asia and India, who until that period, had been concentrating their activities in Aru, Pedir and Pasai en-route to the East, especially China. Because of its strategic location straddling the Straits of Melaka, it thrived as a port-of-call and a centre of entrepot trade with ships and merchants from China, Japan, India, Arab and South Africa. In 1511, it fell to the hands of the Portuguese, followed by the Dutch in 1641 after a fierce battle. In 1795, Melaka was given to the British to prevent it falling to the French when the Netherlands was captured during the Napoleonic Wars. It was returned to the Dutch in 1818 under the treaty of Vienna but was later exchanged by the Brisith for Bangkahulu, Sumatra. From 1826 onwards, the British East India Company along with Singapore and Penang governed it, under the Straits Settlement administration in Calcutta.

The Dutch, who held Melaka for over a century, left many fine buildings marking their heritage. The most imposing relic of the Dutch period is the Stadthuys, a strikingly pink town hall which is today the oldest Dutch building in the Far East. Right next to it stands the bright red Christ Church, constructed with pink bricks imported from Holland and covered with local red lacerite. Today, these buildings together with the ruins of the Portuguese built A Famosa and St. Paul’s Church are the most prominent reminders of the Europeans’ presence in Melaka. After World War II, anti-colonial sentiment bred in the country among the nationalists, the result of which was the proclamation of Independence by Tunku Abdul Rahman Putra, Malaysia’s first Prime Minister, at the Padang Pahlawan (Warrior’s Field) at Bandar Hilir, Melaka on 20 February 1956.

Melaka’s timeline:

1396 – founding of Melaka by Parameswara, Prince of Palembang
1403 – Chinese envoy, Yin Ching arrives.
1407 – Admiral Cheng Ho and the Chinese fleet visits
1411 – Parameswara visits the Ming Emperor in China
1447 – The Siamese attack, but the Melakan fleet repel it.
1509 – Portuguese traders arrive, led by Dieo Lopez de Sequiera, with a fleet of ships. They set out from the Portuguese colony in Goa.
1511 – Follow a 10 day seige, Melaka falls to the Portuguese armada, commanded by Alfonso D’Albuquerque. The Portuguese rule is set to last 130 years.
1537 – Acehnese attack the Portuguese Melaka.
1545 – Fr. Francis Xavier arrives in Melaka.
1588 – Ralph Ritch, the first English visitor.
1597 – The Dutch attack.
1606 – Dutch and Johor (part of Malaysia) jointly attack Melaka, reinforcements of Portuguese from Goa save the city.
1645 – Cheng Hoon Teng temple is built, by Lee Wei King (Chinese). Now the oldest surviving temple in Malaysia
1650 – Now run by the Dutch, the Stadthuys administrative center is built.
1710 – St Peter’s church is built. The oldest functioning church in Malaysia
1795 – The British take over from the Dutch.
1806 – The British start demolishing the Portuguese fortress and abandon Melaka.
1818 – End of the Napoleonic wars, Melaka returned to the Dutch as part of the Treaty of Venice.
1824 – The Treaty of London returns Melaka to the British.
1826 – Melaka, Singapore and Penang part of the Straits Settlement.
1867 – Melaka becomes a British Colony.
1942 – Japanese Occupation
1956 – Proclamation of Independence by Tunku Abdul Rahman – malaysia’s first prime minister, in Melaka 20th February.
1957 – August 31st – Malaysia is independent of Britain.
1963 – Melaka joins the Federation of Malaysia
1989 – Melaka is declared a historic city.

— asmaliana

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